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Articulation is the ability to produce phonemes or speech sounds. Articulation skills are acquired developmentally, and certain phonemes or speech sounds are acquired at different ages. Some articulation errors may be developmentally appropriate due to a child not yet reaching the age of the development of a certain speech sound.

An articulation delay or disorder might be present if a child is not accurately producing speech sounds that he or she should be able to produce developmentally. An articulation disorder might also be present if there are a combination of speech sound errors that make a child’s overall speech and communication hard to understand.

The term “articulation disorder” or “speech sound disorder” is an umbrella term that refers to any combination of difficulties with the production of speech sounds that can include but are not limited to:

  • Errors producing single speech sounds

  • Phonological errors producing speech sounds where a pattern of errors is present

  • Errors with the perception and motor production of speech sounds either due to oral-motor weakness (oral-motor disorder) or due to motor-based difficulties (apraxia)


Language Disorders:

When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language,) or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder. A stroke can result in aphasia, resulting in a language disorder. Both children and adults can have speech and language disorders. They can occur as a result of a medical problem, or have no known cause. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) defines language as “the comprehension and/or use of a spoke (i.e., listening and speaking), written (i.e., reading and writing), and/or other communication symbol system (e.g., American Sign Language).”

There are three primary classifications of language: receptive ( listening and reading), expressive (speaking and writing), and pragmatic (appropriate use and application of language for communicative and social situations).


Fluency (Stuttering):

Stuttering is a disruption in the forward flow of speech that is typically accompanied by physical tension, secondary behaviors, avoidance of communication, and/or negative reactions on the part of the speaker



A swallowing disorder, called dysphagia, is a difficulty or inability to eat or swallow. There are different phases of the swallow. The problem can affect any phase of the swallow. What happens in the mouth is the oral phase. What happens in the throat is the pharyngeal phase. What happens in the esophagus, is called the esophageal phase. A person can have difficulty in any, or all of the phases of the swallow. If the person can’t eat or drink enough, this will affect their nutrition.


Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders:

Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders are characterized by the abnormal positioning of the tongue during speech or swallowing, or when the tongue is at rest. This is also called a “tongue thrust” swallow and it may contribute to malocclusion, misarticulation of speech sounds, or both. You may also see this when there are prolonged oral habits, like thumb or finger sucking. The therapy includes facial and tongue exercises and behavior modification techniques to promote proper tongue position, improved breathing, chewing, and swallowing, and articulation. We also provide newborn orofacial assessments to check for tethered oral tissues: like lip ties, tongue tie, and buccal ties that may be affecting latch for breastfeeding success.


Accent Reduction:

Assessment of a person’s accent is conducted through speech sample recordings and analysis. The speech-language pathologist (SLP) works with the client to develop an individualized program that is research-based and proven to be effective. Training sessions may concentrate on auditory discrimination, word and sentence practice, as well as generalization to everyday conversation. The SLP will work with the client in personalized sessions, depending on the number of speech sounds that need training and client progress.

Occupational Therapy

Occupational Therapy services are provided by skilled professionals who specialize in the intervention of infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents with disorders that effect development of motor, sensory and behavioral skills. Occupational Therapists encourage and work towards the independence of activities of daily living; feeding skills; body awareness; environment safety; sensory integration; self-regulation skills; upper body strength and coordination; fine motor skills; handwriting skills; motor planning and praxis; bilateral coordination skills and balance; visual motor and visual perceptual skills and facilitation of developmental milestones.

Language Disorders
Fluency (Stuttering)
Accent Reduction
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders
Occupatinal Therapy
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